Apache is the most widely used HTTP server on the internet, and DreamHost uses it extensively as the default HTTP server for all hosting products.
These instructions assume you run a Fedora- or CentOS-based system as they have their own specific configuration and file hierarchy.
To install Apache on your system, run the following command:
[root@server]# sudo yum install httpd
- The install process asks you to confirm if you wish to install any dependency packages needed for Apache.
- Enter “y” and hit enter to confirm.
In order to start Apache run
[root@server]# sudo service httpd start
This may display an error about the lack of a configuration, but it will start anyways.
Starting httpd: httpd: apr_sockaddr_info_get() failed for centos65 httpd: Could not reliably determine the server's fully qualified domain name, using 127.0.0.1 for ServerName [ OK ]
You likely want apache to start on boot, and this can be configured with:
[root@server]# sudo chkconfig httpd on
If you visit the public IP in your browser for your DreamCompute instance, you are able to see the ‘getting started’ page. You can find this IP on the Instances (IP Address column) or Access & Security (floating ips tab) panel pages.
The default page displays the following when Apache successfully installs:
Apache 2 Test Page powered by CentOS or Fedora Test Page This page is used to test the proper operation of the Apache HTTP server after it has been installed. If you can read this page it means that the Apache HTTP server installed at this site is working properly.
Apache Directories and Main Configuration Files
The /etc/httpd2 directory
This directory contains all the configuration files for your Apache server, and symlinks to other parts of the Apache install such as the logs and modules directories.
[root@server]# sudo ls /etc/httpd conf conf.d conf.modules.d logs modules run
This directory by default only contains the main Apache config file named “httpd.conf”, and the “magic” file used for determining MIME types. The httpd.conf file is the only user-editable file and is well documented what each part of it does. For making additions to this file, you can edit it directly to add your changes but it is recommended to create new .conf files in the conf.d directory instead for ease of management.
All files with the .conf extension in this directory will be loaded last by httpd.conf and in alphabetical order. The default Apache install from Fedora and CentOS have different basic contents in these directories, but one common file is welcome.conf to load the default Apache startup page when nothing else is configured. Additional files will be added here by the administrator to configure Apache for the sites and features needed.
conf.modules.d (Fedora only)
This directory contains configuration files only used for loading modules and their options. It is recommended to make any non-standard modifications for modules in the conf.d directory instead. CentOS does not have this directory, relying on the httpd.conf file or conf.d entries for changes to modules instead.
Virtual hosts define each site so that Apache knows what it should do when it receives a request. The Apache configuration process on Fedora and CentOS is less defined compared to the Debian/Ubuntu setups, which can allow for more flexibility. For easier management it is recommended to create individual .conf files to configure specific services in the /etc/httpd/conf.d directory, however you are free to create the files and their contents any way you desire.
The welcome.conf file defines what Apache should do when it gets a request that matches no other virtual hosts. If you only expect to have one site on your DreamCompute instance, you could use this file and no others if you prefer. For those with multiple sites, this can be used to instruct the visitor that they may have done something wrong, or redirect them to another site.
- For each site you wish to configure, we recommended you name a file similar to your site name in the /etc/httpd/conf.d/ directory.
- There are several example virtual hosts available on the Apache Wiki Example Vhosts page but you can view a basic one listening on port 80 (http) with custom logging here:
<VirtualHost *:80> ServerName example.com ServerAlias www.example.com DocumentRoot /var/www/www.example.com CustomLog /var/log/httpd/www.example.com-access.log combined ErrorLog /var/log/httpd/www.example.com-error.log </VirtualHost>
Alternatively, if you wish to specify the ip instead of “*” you can use the following command replacing 220.127.116.11 with your real ip address:
Managing virtual host files
If you create a .conf file for each site and wish to enable or disable that site, all this would require is removing or moving that sites specific .conf file out of the /etc/httpd/conf.d directory and then reloading Apache. Alternatively, you could comment out the entire file by adding “#” to the front of each line. You can reload Apache via the command:
[root@server]# sudo service httpd reload